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FOOTWEAR SOLE STRUCTURE
di Sergio SEGALIN
***INDUSTRIAL PATENT
***CERTIFIED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF PADUA
Introduction
This paper describes a novel, original product deriving from many years of research and experimentation. Having passed numerous practical and empirical, and ultimately also clinical and instrumental tests, this sole is now ready for application in the fine footwear sector. It is intended for mature, demanding customers, and designed to meet their expectations in terms of comfort, light weight and flexibility, to prevent leg fatigue in the wearer's daily activities and to favor the relaxation of the posterior tibial muscle mainly responsible for bearing the weight of the body when a person is standing or walking for lengthy periods of time.

This sole is suitable for use in the production of all kinds of footwear. It has been conceived to provide a slightly elevated support for the rear part of the foot, with a particular lateral slant and a supporting curve on the medial side, so as to aid muscle function and reduce fatigue in the leg and foot.

This "footwear sole structure" was invented by Sergio Segalin of Venice and is now covered by an Industrial patent (Application: TV2004A000123 of 29.10.2004). It is probably unique in the footwear sector, in that it can boast UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATION, granted after numerous medical and instrumental tests conducted at the University of Padua's Orthopedics Clinic (Prof. Raffaele Scapinelli and Dr. Giuseppe Taglialavoro) and Neurophysiopathology Service (Prof. Paolo Negrin).

The patented sole structure is the outcome of lengthy research and experiments by its inventor over decades of activity in the design and manufacture of various models of corrective footwear. It emerged from these studies that - despite the variety of cases presenting themselves and the numerous different methods being applied to footwear for corrective purposes, or to compensate for anatomical deficits or peculiarities - the structural anatomical characteristics of the underside of such footwear (insole and sole) were always founded on the same concept, i.e. that laterally tilting the surface supporting the foot has a positive effect in reducing the fatigue deriving from prolonged standing and walking.
Using such a supporting surface, inducing a mild supination of the heel, helps to create a particular three-dimensional configuration of the foot as a whole that is capable of optimizing both the distribution of the body weight on the surface of the sole and the function of the posterior tibial muscle, having the tangible effect of reducing the sense of fatigue and improving the feeling of wellbeing.

This prompted the creation of the "footwear sole structure" explained overleaf. By way of example, two graphic illustrations are provided to demonstrate the unique, original nature of its shape.
This "footwear sole" can be applied to any type, model and size of shoe for men or women. It is suitable for use by people with feet presenting a normal physiology and function, as well as by people whose feet have anomalies or pathologies, such as excessive arch relaxation or contraction.
It may be a good idea to mention here that the sole of a shoe is normally flat. An insole can be inserted, as and when necessary, which can be shaped more or less anatomically, also adding pads designed to raise the arch passively, or adopting other specific corrective measures depending on the wearer's needs.
The present footwear sole, on the other hand, has a particular shape for the surface supporting the back of the foot so as to transfer the load more on the lateral side of the heel bone than on the medial side (*).
The invention also prevents any excessive twisting of the sole of the foot (as explained in the footnote) and thus prevents the foot from becoming too flat, thereby helping to preserve a normal morphology of the foot in the static phase and optimizing the work of the posterior tibial muscle in the dynamic phase of heel lift and toe off (otherwise the muscle would be forced to contract excessively, thus producing fatigue).
For all the above reasons, the product presented here is responsibly recommended as a tool for use in the medical footwear sector too, where the acquisition of new experience may point to other interesting prospects that, for the time being, are still only theoretically feasible.

* According to the tester, Dr. G. Taglialavoro, it has now been well established in the scientific literature that, "the foot as a whole does not work like a tripod, which would inevitably have exclusively static functions; instead, it forms an architecturally three-dimensional screw-like structure capable of coiling and uncoiling in relation to the static and dynamic functions of the foot. This coiling and uncoiling action influences the appearance of the footprint and thus also the extent to which the medial margin of the foot lifts off the ground. The degree to which the foot uncoils and coils depends on the heel's intra- and extra-rotational motion. Pronation, i.e. when the heel rotates inwards (becoming valgus with respect to the tibia) uncoils the foot, while supination, i.e. when the heel rotates outwards (becoming varus) has a compressive effect. Pronation and supination are physiological heel movements in deambulation as a function of the static and dynamic phases of the stride. In static terms, the pronated heel uncoils and hollows the foot. Thus, during deambulation, the foot passes from an anatomo-functional condition of relative flatness to a phase of relative hollowness. The foot's morpho-functional "normality", and the consequent amplitude of its footprint, are assured by a certain degree of uncoiling, which must be neither too much nor too little."

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